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Tutorial 4: Tic Tac Toe

Overview

In this tutorial, we will go over how to use sCrypt to build a Tic-Tac-Toe Contract on Bitcoin.

It is initialized with the Bitcoin public key of two players (Alice and Bob respectively). They each bet the same amount and lock it into the contract. The winner takes all bitcoins locked in the contract. If no one wins and there is a draw, the two players can each withdraw half of the money.

Contract Properties

Use @prop decorator to mark any property that intends to be stored on chain. This decorator accepts a boolean parameter. By default, it is set to false, meaning the property cannot be changed after the contract is deployed. If it is true, the property is a so-called stateful property and its value can be updated in subsequent contract calls.

The tic-tac-toe contract supports two players and their public keys need to be saved. It contains the following contract properties:

  • Two stateless properties alice and bob, both of which are PubKey type.
  • Two stateful properties:
    • is_alice_turn: a boolean. It represents whether it is alice's turn to play.
    • board: a fixed-size array FixedArray<bigint, 9> with a size of 9. It represents the state of every square in the board.
  • Three constants:
    • EMPTY, type bigint, value 0n. It means that a square in the board is empty
    • ALICE, type bigint, value 1n. Alice places symbol X in a square.
    • BOB, type bigint, value 2n. Bob places symbol O in a square.
@prop()
alice: PubKey; // alice's public Key
@prop()
bob: PubKey; // bob's public Key

@prop(true)
is_alice_turn: boolean; // stateful property, it represents whether it is `alice`'s turn to play.

@prop(true)
board: FixedArray<bigint, 9>; // stateful property, a fixed-size array, it represents the state of every square in the board.

@prop()
static readonly EMPTY: bigint = 0n; // static property, it means that the a square in the board is empty
@prop()
static readonly ALICE: bigint = 1n; // static property, it means that alice places symbol `X` in a square.
@prop()
static readonly BOB: bigint = 2n; // static property, it means that bob places symbol `O` in a square.

Constructor

Initialize all non-static properties in the constructor. Specifically, the entire board is empty at first.

constructor(alice: PubKey, bob: PubKey) {
super(...arguments);
this.alice = alice;
this.bob = bob;
this.is_alice_turn = true;
this.board = fill(TicTacToe.EMPTY, 9);
}

Public Methods

A public @method can be called from an external transaction. The call succeeds if it runs to completion without violating any conditions in assert().

The TicTacToe contract have a public @method called move() with 2 parameters:

/**
* play the game by calling move()
* @param n which square to place the symbol
* @param sig a player's signature
*/
@method()
public move(n: bigint, sig: Sig) {
assert(n >= 0n && n < 9n);
}

Alice and Bob each locks X bitcoins in a UTXO containing contract TicTacToe. Next, they alternately play the game by calling move().

Signature Verification

Once the game contract is deployed, anyone can view and potentially interact with it. We need a authentication mechanism to ensure only the desired player can update the contract if it's their turn. This is achieved using ditigal signatures.

this.checkSig() is used to verify a signature against a public key. Use it to verify the sig parameter against the desired player in move(), identified by their public key stored in the contract's properties.

// check signature `sig`
let player: PubKey = this.is_alice_turn ? this.alice : this.bob;
assert(this.checkSig(sig, player), `checkSig failed, pubkey: ${player}`);

Non-Public Methods

Without a public modifier, a @method is internal and cannot be directly called from an external transaction.

The TicTacToe contract have two Non-Public methods:

  • won() : iterate over the lines array to check if a player has won the game. returns boolean type.
  • full() : traverse all the squares of the board to check if all squares of the board have symbols. returns boolean type.
@method()
won(play: bigint) : boolean {
let lines: FixedArray<FixedArray<bigint, 3>, 8> = [
[0n, 1n, 2n],
[3n, 4n, 5n],
[6n, 7n, 8n],
[0n, 3n, 6n],
[1n, 4n, 7n],
[2n, 5n, 8n],
[0n, 4n, 8n],
[2n, 4n, 6n]
];

let anyLine = false;

for (let i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
let line = true;
for (let j = 0; j < 3; j++) {
line = line && this.board[Number(lines[i][j])] === play;
}

anyLine = anyLine || line;
}

return anyLine;
}

@method()
full() : boolean {
let full = true;
for (let i = 0; i < 9; i++) {
full = full && this.board[i] !== TicTacToe.EMPTY;
}
return full;
}

Maintain Game State

We can directly access the ScriptContext through this.ctx in the public @method move() to maintain game state. It can be considered additional information a public method gets when called, besides its function parameters.

Contract maintenance state consists of the following three steps:

Step 1

Update the stateful properties in public @method.

A player call move() to places the symbol in the board. We should update the stateful properties board and is_alice_turn in the move() @method:

assert(this.board[Number(n)] === TicTacToe.EMPTY, `board at position ${n} is not empty: ${this.board[Number(n)]}`);
let play = this.is_alice_turn ? TicTacToe.ALICE : TicTacToe.BOB;
// update stateful properties to make the move
this.board[Number(n)] = play; // Number() converts a bigint to a number
this.is_alice_turn = !this.is_alice_turn;

Step 2

When you are ready to pass the new state onto the output[s] in the current spending transaction, simply call a built-in function this.buildStateOutput() to create an output containing the new state. It takes an input: the number of satoshis in the output. We keep the satoshis unchanged in the example.

let output = this.buildStateOutput(this.ctx.utxo.value);

Build outputs in public @method

TicTacToe can contain the following three types of output during execution:

  1. The game is not over: a output containing the new state and a change output
  2. A player wins the game: a P2PKH output that pays the winner, and a change output.
  3. A draw: two P2PKH outputs that split the contract-locked bets equally between the players and a change output.

The P2PKH output can be built using Utils.buildPublicKeyHashOutput(pkh: PubKeyHash, amount: bigint). The change output can be built using this.buildChangeOutput().

// build the transation outputs
let outputs = toByteString('');
if (this.won(play)) {
outputs = Utils.buildPublicKeyHashOutput(pubKey2Addr(player), this.ctx.utxo.value);
}
else if (this.full()) {
const halfAmount = this.ctx.utxo.value / 2n;
const aliceOutput = Utils.buildPublicKeyHashOutput(pubKey2Addr(this.alice), halfAmount);
const bobOutput = Utils.buildPublicKeyHashOutput(pubKey2Addr(this.bob), halfAmount);
outputs = aliceOutput + bobOutput;
}
else {
// build a output that contains latest contract state.
outputs = this.buildStateOutput(this.ctx.utxo.value);
}

outputs += this.buildChangeOutput();

Step 3

Make sure that the output of the current transaction must contain this incremented new state. If all outputs (only a single output here) we create in the contract hashes to hashOutputs in ScriptContext, we can be sure they are the outputs of the current transaction. Therefore, the updated state is propagated.

// verify current tx has this single output
assert(this.ctx.hashOutputs == hash256(outputs), 'hashOutputs mismatch')

Conclusion

Congratulations, you have completed the TicTacToe contract!

The final complete code is as follows:

export class TicTacToe extends SmartContract {
@prop()
alice: PubKey;
@prop()
bob: PubKey;

@prop(true)
is_alice_turn: boolean;

@prop(true)
board: FixedArray<bigint, 9>;

@prop()
static readonly EMPTY: bigint = 0n;
@prop()
static readonly ALICE: bigint = 1n;
@prop()
static readonly BOB: bigint = 2n;

constructor(alice: PubKey, bob: PubKey) {
super(...arguments)
this.alice = alice;
this.bob = bob;
this.is_alice_turn = true;
this.board = fill(TicTacToe.EMPTY, 9);
}

@method()
public move(n: bigint, sig: Sig) {
// check position `n`
assert(n >= 0n && n < 9n);
// check signature `sig`
let player: PubKey = this.is_alice_turn ? this.alice : this.bob;
assert(this.checkSig(sig, player), `checkSig failed, pubkey: ${player}`);
// update stateful properties to make the move
assert(this.board[Number(n)] === TicTacToe.EMPTY, `board at position ${n} is not empty: ${this.board[Number(n)]}`);
let play = this.is_alice_turn ? TicTacToe.ALICE : TicTacToe.BOB;
this.board[Number(n)] = play;
this.is_alice_turn = !this.is_alice_turn;

// build the transation outputs
let outputs = toByteString('');
if (this.won(play)) {
outputs = Utils.buildPublicKeyHashOutput(pubKey2Addr(player), this.ctx.utxo.value);
}
else if (this.full()) {
const halfAmount = this.ctx.utxo.value / 2n;
const aliceOutput = Utils.buildPublicKeyHashOutput(pubKey2Addr(this.alice), halfAmount);
const bobOutput = Utils.buildPublicKeyHashOutput(pubKey2Addr(this.bob), halfAmount);
outputs = aliceOutput + bobOutput;
}
else {
// build a output that contains latest contract state.
outputs = this.buildStateOutput(this.ctx.utxo.value);
}

outputs += this.buildChangeOutput();

// make sure the transaction contains the expected outputs built above
assert(this.ctx.hashOutputs === hash256(outputs), "check hashOutputs failed");
}

@method()
won(play: bigint): boolean {
let lines: FixedArray<FixedArray<bigint, 3>, 8> = [
[0n, 1n, 2n],
[3n, 4n, 5n],
[6n, 7n, 8n],
[0n, 3n, 6n],
[1n, 4n, 7n],
[2n, 5n, 8n],
[0n, 4n, 8n],
[2n, 4n, 6n]
];

let anyLine = false;

for (let i = 0; i < 8; i++) {
let line = true;
for (let j = 0; j < 3; j++) {
line = line && this.board[Number(lines[i][j])] === play;
}

anyLine = anyLine || line;
}

return anyLine;
}

@method()
full(): boolean {
let full = true;
for (let i = 0; i < 9; i++) {
full = full && this.board[i] !== TicTacToe.EMPTY;
}
return full;
}

}

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